The sound /d/ voiced, alveolar, stop consonant




  • "d" - had, avoid
  • "de" - made, reside
  • "dd" - sudden, address
  • "ed" - loved, feared

The sound /d/ can be in these consonant clusters:
  • Beginning of a Syllable
/dr/ - drink
/dw/ - dwell
  • End of a Syllable
/rd/ ("rd" / "red") - hard, feared
/ld/ ("ld" / "led" / "lled') - told, piled, filled
/nd/ ("nd" / "ned" "nned") - land, rained, planned
/md/ ("med" / "mmed" / "mbed") - claimed, hummed, combed
/lmd/ ("lmed") - calmed
/rmd/ ("med") - harmed
/bd/ ("bed" / "bbed") - cubed, robbed
/gd/ ("gged") - hugged
/vd/ ("ved") - loved
/zd/ ("zed" / "sed") - amazed, raised
/ðd/ ('thed") - breathed
/dʒd/ ("ged" / "dged") - raged, judged
/dz/ ("ds" / "des") - roads, grades
/rdz/ ("rds") - cords
/ldz/ ("lds") - builds
/ndz/ ("nds") - friends

Grammar Tip:

The “-ed” ending is used to mark most past tense verbs, some past participles, and some participial adjectives. The “-ed” ending is pronounced /d/ after a vowel or a voiced consonant.
  • loved
  • called
  • amazed
  • tried

The "-ed" ending is pronounced /əd/ after the sounds /t/ or /d/.
  • handed
  • wanted
  • interested
  • loaded
Compare /d/ with /t/:

These are both alveolar, stop consonants. However, /d/ is a voiced consonant and /t/ is a voiceless consonant. When you pronounce /t/, your vocal cords should vibrate.

You can hear the difference between /d/ and /t/ in these words.
1. A. dip, B. tip
2. A. drunk, B. trunk
3. A. pad, B. pat
4. A. mend, B. meant
5. A. burned, B. burnt
6. A. rending, B. renting
Listen and repeat these words:
1. dot
2. dear
3. drink
4. draw
5. dresser
6. sad 
7. tend
8. birds
9. learned
10. loved
11. judged
12. understand
13. divided
14. address
15. redo
16. thunder
17. medicine
18. bundle
19. mandatory
20. dedicated

Now, practice /d/ in sentences. Say the words first, then the sentences.
1. doctors - diagnose - kinds - diseases
Doctors diagnose all kinds of diseases.
2. did - decide - dessert
Did you decide what you want for dessert?
3. children - dressing - different
Children love dressing up as different characters.
4. send - include - address
When you send the invitations, include your address.
5. burned - dish - dinner
I burned the dish I was cooking for dinner.
6. heard - bad - Monday
I heard the bad news on Monday.

To practice with different varieties of English, choose another native English speaker by clicking one of the links below:

Consonants /d/ and /g/

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